Sleep is an absolutely essential component of exercise recovery and muscle growth. Being able to sleep deeply and consistently through the night is tied to many critical bodily functions including stress control, body fat, muscle soreness, and hormone levels to name a few.
This is why the body has the greatest potential for anabolism during sleep. Most other processes are shut down, and the important, muscle-building processes that are normally not prioritized come to the forefront. This is the inspiration for Anabolic Coma.
To have a deep, restful, and recuperative sleep while also activating anabolic factors for maximal muscle growth.
• Essential vitamins and minerals to promote proper sleep.*
• GABA and phenyl-GABA trigger sedative processes in the brain to hasten sleep latency and improve sleep quality.*
• Contains amino acids responsible for the formation of serotonin and growth hormone to improve REM sleep and recovery.*
• Ashwagandha decreases anxiety and promotes anabolic hormone status.*
• L-Theanine takes the edge off of any lingering caffeine from earlier in the day*
If you’ve ever wanted to be like the proverbial “sleeping giant,” Anabolic Coma is for you. Not only will you be able to fall asleep fast and stay asleep, you will be activating multiple growth factors all at the same time!
One serving of Anabolic Coma before bed will increase REM sleep and dream capacity. And by dream capacity, we mean you will need to start dreaming bigger, because your size and recovery goals will be achieved! Sleep BIG with Anabolic Coma.
Chromium is a trace mineral used by the body to digest food, enhance insulin receptor function, and increase frequency of dreams.
- Helps reduce blood glucose by increasing binding of insulin to its receptor on cell membranes.
- Chromium supplementation helps control body weight by enhancing satiety.
- A study in the Journal of Nutritional Medicine reports that study participants experienced increased dream frequency and intensity while supplementing chromium ( Schrauzer et al., 2009)
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin with many roles in health. Americans often have inadequate vitamin D intake.
- Inadequate vitamin D is associated with disturbed sleep patterns and symptoms of poor sleep.
- Vitamin D supplementation has been observed to reduced the time required to fall asleep as well as increase sleep duration (Huang et al., 2013).
- Large bodies, whether from obesity or muscle, tend to have sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea may be correlated with low levels of vitamin D.
A mineral and electrolyte, magnesium is involved in metabolism, protein synthesis, and ATP generation.
- Magnesium deficiencies increase blood pressure and insulin resistance.
- Supplementing with magnesium can promote muscle relaxation as well as increases in testosterone levels.
- Participants supplementing with magnesium have found enhanced sleep quality and reductions in overnight cortisol concentrations (Held et al., 2002).
Zinc is an important mineral that is needed for many enzymatic reactions to occur as well as muscle protein synthesis.
- Zinc supports testosterone production and may increase testosterone levels after exercise and while sleeping.
- Zinc deficiencies are related to low IGF-1 and GH.
- The role of zinc in the central nervous system involves regulation of sleep, and zinc supplementation studies show that it enhances amount and quality of sleep (Cherasse and Urade, 2017).
4-Aminobutanoic Acid (GABA)
GABA is an inhibitory, amino acid-based neurotransmitter. It is the most important neurotransmitter for relaxation.
- Stimulation of GABA receptors (such as with GABA) promotes relaxation and rest.
- Supplementation with GABA increases concentrations of growth hormone.
- Athletes sleep quality may be enhanced by GABA supplementation.
Beta-Phenyl-Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Phenibut)
Phenibut is a phenyl-GABA that is actually more efficacious for sleep on a gram-for-gram basis, and it is used as a pharmaceutical treatment for insomnia and anxiety in Eastern Europe.
- Discovered and introduced in Russia in the 1960’s for reducing anxiety, enhancing sleep, and enhancing cognition.
- Unlike other tranquilizing supplements, phenibut does not reduce performance or result in irritability or fatigue after waking.
- Activates cognitive processes and central muscle relaxation.
Tryptophan is an amino acid, and the L isoform is the most biologically active. For sleep purposes, tryptophan is a direct precursor of the sleep aid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, which can become serotonin.
- Identified as a natural sedative as early as 1970.
- Reductions in dietary tryptophan decrease duration of REM sleep.
- Supplementation with L-tryptophan reduced the number of time study participants awoke at night and increased the duration of REM sleep (Nicholson, and Stone, 1979).
Nelumbo Nucifera is a flower more often referred to as Indian Lotus with many bioactive polyphenols, such as catechin and cyanidin.
- Nelumbo is capable of regulating serotonin receptors, which may enhance sleep.
- Sedation effects of Nelumbo have been documented in rats to be equally effective as Diazepam.
- May reduce appetite and decrease food intake.
Theanine is an amino acid that is not one of the 20 common to the human diet. Theanine is unique in its effects to relax without increasing sleepiness.
- Commonly used to take the edge off of caffeine and other stimulants. May help with relaxing and falling asleep at night after caffeine consumption during the day.
- Promotes relaxation and restfulness while decreasing anxiety.
- Also enhances mental relaxation, to increase focus and improve learning.
Melatonin is part of the serotonin metabolic pathway. It promotes sleep without creating dependence and responds to light/dark therapy.
- May enhance growth hormone release during sleep.
- Highly effective as a treatment for insomnia.
- Doses as little as 0.5mg may be used to successfully correct jet lag and sleep cycles.
- Helps to prevent adipogenesis and weight gain.
Glycine is another amino acid with roles in sleep regulation that promote more recuperative sleep. Glycine is also involved in growth hormone formation and secretion.
- Glycine dose-dependently increases GH secretion and helps control pituitary function.
- Consumption of glycine before bed results in decreased feelings of fatigue while increasing clear-headedness and wakefulness.
- Reductions in glycine receptor stimulation or function decrease REM sleep and promote REM sleep behavior disorder.
Lysine is an essential amino acid required to the synthesis of growth hormone.
- In combination with arginine, lysine is able to increase growth hormone production.
Ornithine is another amino acid that is capable of stimulating growth hormone secretions.
- Promotes sleep duration and quality after alcohol consumption.
- Decreases cortisol levels, perceived stress, and anger levels.
- Capable of increasing acute growth hormone pulses.
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid with several roles beneficial to improving exercise recovery and muscle growth.
- Supplementation with arginine has been observed to increase blood GH levels, which peak 1 hour after consumption (Collier et al., 2005)
- May have potentially enhanced function when combined with ornithine or lysine.
- Studies suggest arginine enhances blood flow and exercise performance.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
Huperzia Serrata provides Huperzine A, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that increases total acetylcholine.
- Helps to decrease acetylcholine degradation.
- May improve memory, cognition, and dreaming. There are anecdotal reports of lucid dreams after huperzine and choline supplementation.
- Examinations of acetylcholine in the forebrain show that acetylcholine release is increased during REM sleep compared to when awake (Vazquez and Baghdoyan, 2001).
Ashwagandha is one of the most popular herbs used worldwide for a number of reasons, including reduced stress and enhanced athleticism.
- Participants supplementing with ashwagandha for 8 weeks reported over a 50% decrease in anxiety as well as improvements in concentration, vitality, and quality of life.
- Males subjects using ashwagandha over 2 months experienced enhanced muscle mass and strength gains, potentially due to increased testosterone levels, which increased by almost 100 ng/dL.
- Enhances sleep quality, even if supplemented during the day.
Similar to huperzine, choline bitartrate increases choline and acetylcholine levels. Acetylcholine may then promote deeper sleep.
- Cholinergic stimulation in the brain stem tripled REM sleep duration in one study (Datta et al., 1991)
- Mothers with high choline intake reduce cortisol levels in their children.
- Low choline status is correlated with greater anxiety levels.
Inositol is a sort of pseudovitamin present in fruits and grains. It has functioned as a neuromodulatory agent capable of reducing anxiety and depression.
- Supplementation with inositol is efficacious for decreasing anxiety and panic disorders in otherwise healthy participants.
- Individuals with eating disorders due to stress report decreased anxiety and obsession when taking inositol.
- May help with weight control and improve heart health.
Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid with a vital structural role in neurons as well as memory and cognition.
- Can reduce anxiety.
- Participants supplementing with phosphatidylserine have been observed to remain calmer during stress.
- Enhances cognition, as demonstrated by several supplementation investigations.
Q: What is the best way to use Coma?
A: As a dietary supplement, take 1 serving (1 scoop; 11 grams) of Coma approximately 30 minutes prior to sleep and 8 hours before you need to wake up.
Q: Is there anyone who should not use Coma?
A: Yes. If you are under the age of 18, pregnant or breastfeeding, have a known liver insufficiency, have a gastrointestinal ulcer, or are under the effects of alcohol, you should not use Coma.
Q: Will Coma help me recover aside from improving my sleep?
A: Yes. The inclusion of key ingredients such as Ashwagandha have a number of beneficial effects that enhance recovery by improving many aspects of wellbeing, including testosterone, cholesterol levels, and power output.
1. Schrauzer, G. N., Shrestha, K. P., & Flores, M. (1992). Somatopsychological effects of chromium supplementation. Journal of nutritional medicine, 3(1), 43-48.
2. Evans, G. W., & Bowman, T. D. (1992). Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of insulin internalization. Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 46(4), 243-250.
3. Anderson, R. A. (1998). Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 17(6), 548-555.
4. Anton, S. D., Morrison, C. D., Cefalu, W. T., Martin, C. K., Coulon, S., Geiselman, P., … & Williamson, D. A. (2008). Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes technology & Therapeutics, 10(5), 405-412.
5. Frauchiger, M. T., Wenk, C., & Colombani, P. C. (2004). Effects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(4), 351-357.
1. Gominak, S. C., & Stumpf, W. E. (2012). The world epidemic of sleep disorders is linked to vitamin D deficiency. Medical Hypotheses, 79(2), 132-135.
2. Bozkurt, N. C., Cakal, E., Sahin, M., Ozkaya, E. C., Firat, H., & Delibasi, T. (2012). The relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels with severity of obstructive sleep apnea and glucose metabolism abnormalities. Endocrine, 41(3), 518-525.
3. Huang, W., Shah, S., Long, Q., Crankshaw, A. K., & Tangpricha, V. (2013). Improvement of pain, sleep, and quality of life in chronic pain patients with vitamin D supplementation. The Clinical journal of pain, 29(4), 341-347.
4. McCarty, D. E., Chesson Jr, A. L., Jain, S. K., & Marino, A. A. (2014). The link between vitamin D metabolism and sleep medicine. Sleep medicine reviews, 18(4), 311-319.
1. Held, K., Antonijevic, I. A., Künzel, H., Uhr, M., Wetter, T. C., Golly, I. C., … & Murck, H. (2002). Oral Mg2+ supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35(04), 135-143.
2. Brilla, L. R., & Haley, T. F. (1992). Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11(3), 326-329.
3. Golf, S. W., Bender, S., & Grüttner, J. (1998). On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 12(2), 197-202.
4. van der Plas, A. A., Schilder, J. C., Marinus, J., & van Hilten, J. J. (2013). An explanatory study evaluating the muscle relaxant effects of intramuscular magnesium sulfate for dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 14(11), 1341-1348.
5. Cinar, V., Polat, Y., Baltaci, A. K., & Mogulkoc, R. (2011). Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biological trace element research, 140(1), 18-23.
1. Cherasse, Y., & Urade, Y. (2017). Dietary Zinc Acts as a Sleep Modulator. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(11), 2334.
2. Brilla, L. R., & Conte, V. (2000). Effects of a Novel Zinc-Magnesium Formulation on Hormones and Strength. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 3(4).
3. Kilic, M., Baltaci, A. K., Gunay, M., Gökbel, H., Okudan, N., & Cicioglu, I. (2006). The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuro endocrinology letters, 27(1-2), 247-252.
4. Kilic, M. (2007). Effect of fatiguing bicycle exercise on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels in sedentary males supplemented with oral zinc. Neuro endocrinology letters, 28(5), 681-685.
5. Netter, A., Nahoul, K., & Hartoma, R. (1981). Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Archives of Andrology, 7(1), 69-73.
4-Aminobutanoic Acid (GABA)
1. Halson, S. L. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 13-23.
2. Meyerhoff, D. J., Mon, A., Metzler, T., & Neylan, T. C. (2014). Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships to self-reported sleep quality. Sleep, 37(5), 893-900.
3. Cavagnini, F., Invitti, C., Pinto, M., Maraschini, C., Di Landro, A., Dubini, A., & Marelli, A. (1980). Effect of acute and repeated administration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Acta endocrinologica, 93(2), 149-154.
4. Powers, M. E., Yarrow, J. F., Mccoy, S. C., & Borst, S. E. (2008). Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(1), 104-110.
Beta-Phenyl-Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Phenibut)
1. Zvejniece, L., Vavers, E., Svalbe, B., Veinberg, G., Rizhanova, K., Liepins, V., … & Dambrova, M. (2015). R-phenibut binds to the α2–δ subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels and exerts gabapentin-like anti-nociceptive effects. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 137, 23-29.
2. Lapin, I. (2001). Phenibut (β‐Phenyl‐GABA): A Tranquilizer and Nootropic Drug. CNS drug reviews, 7(4), 471-481.
3. Owen, D. R., Wood, D. M., Archer, J. R., & Dargan, P. I. (2016). Phenibut (4‐amino‐3‐phenyl‐butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug and alcohol review, 35(5), 591-596.
4. Allan, R. D., Bates, M. C., Drew, C. A., Duke, R. K., Hambley, T. W., Johnston, G. A. R., … & Spence, I. (1990). A new synthesis resolution and in vitro activities of (R)-and (S)-β-Phenyl-Gaba. Tetrahedron, 46(7), 2511-2524.
5. Dambrova, M., Zvejniece, L., Liepinsh, E., Cirule, H., Zharkova, O., Veinberg, G., & Kalvinsh, I. (2008). Comparative pharmacological activity of optical isomers of phenibut. European journal of pharmacology, 583(1), 128-134.
1. Nicholson, A. N., & Stone, B. M. (1979). L-tryptophan and sleep in healthy man. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, 47(5), 539-545.
2. Schmidt, H. S. (1983). L-tryptophan in the treatment of impaired respiration in sleep. Bulletin europeen de physiopathologie respiratoire, 19(6), 625-629.
3. Wyatt, R., Kupfer, D., Sjoerdsma, A., Engelman, K., Fram, D., & Snyder, F. (1970). Effects of L-tryptophan (a natural sedative) on human sleep. The lancet, 296(7678), 842-846.
4. Moja, E. A., Mendelson, W. B., Stoff, D. M., Gillin, J. C., & Wyatt, R. J. (1979). Reduction of REM sleep by a tryptophan-free amino acid diet. Life sciences, 24(16), 1467-1470.
5. Shell, W., Bullias, D., Charuvastra, E., May, L. A., & Silver, D. S. (2010). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of an amino acid preparation on timing and quality of sleep. American journal of therapeutics, 17(2), 133-139.
1. Sugimoto, Y., Furutani, S., Nishimura, K., Itoh, A., Tanahashi, T., Nakajima, H., … & Yamada, J. (2010). Antidepressant-like effects of neferine in the forced swimming test involve the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor in mice. European journal of Pharmacology, 634(1-3), 62-67.
2. Joung Youn, U., Lee, J. H., Lee, Y. J., Nam, J. W., Bae, H., & Seo, E. K. (2010). Regulation of the 5‐HT3A receptor‐mediated current by alkyl 4‐hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera. Chemistry & biodiversity, 7(9), 2296-2302.
3. Sugimoto, Y., Furutani, S., Itoh, A., Tanahashi, T., Nakajima, H., Oshiro, H., … & Yamada, J. (2008). Effects of extracts and neferine from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the central nervous system. Phytomedicine, 15(12), 1117-1124.
4. Du, H., You, J. S., Zhao, X., Park, J. Y., Kim, S. H., & Chang, K. J. (2010). Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet. Journal of biomedical science, 17(1), S42.
5. Nguyen, K. H., Ta, T. N., Pham, T. H. M., Nguyen, Q. T., Pham, H. D., Mishra, S., & Nyomba, B. G. (2012). Nuciferine stimulates insulin secretion from beta cells—An in vitro comparison with glibenclamide. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 142(2), 488-495.
6. Mukherjee, D., Khatua, T. N., Venkatesh, P., Saha, B. P., & Mukherjee, P. K. (2010). Immunomodulatory potential of rhizome and seed extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 128(2), 490-494.
1. Lu, K., Gray, M. A., Oliver, C., Liley, D. T., Harrison, B. J., Bartholomeusz, C. F., … & Nathan, P. J. (2004). The acute effects of L‐theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 19(7), 457-465.
2. Song, C. H., Jung, J. H., Oh, J. S., & Kim, K. S. (2003). Effects of theanine on the release of brain alpha wave in adult males. Korean Journal of Nutrition, 36(9), 918-923.
3. Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 3(3), 171-178.
4. Lyon, M. R., Kapoor, M. P., & Juneja, L. R. (2011). The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alternative medicine review, 16(4), 348.
5. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
6. Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290.
7. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2008). The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biological psychology, 77(2), 113-122.
1. Van Geijlswijk, I. M., Mol, R. H., Egberts, T. C., & Smits, M. G. (2011). Evaluation of sleep, puberty and mental health in children with long-term melatonin treatment for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia. Psychopharmacology, 216(1), 111-120.
2. Alonso‐Vale, M. I. C., Peres, S. B., Vernochet, C., Farmer, S. R., & Lima, F. B. (2009). Adipocyte differentiation is inhibited by melatonin through the regulation of C/EBPβ transcriptional activity. Journal of pineal research, 47(3), 221-227.
3. Wolden-Hanson, T., Mitton, D. R., McCants, R. L., Yellon, S. M., Wilkinson, C. W., Matsumoto, A. M., & Rasmussen, D. D. (2000). Daily melatonin administration to middle-aged male rats suppresses body weight, intraabdominal adiposity, and plasma leptin and insulin independent of food intake and total body fat. Endocrinology, 141(2), 487-497.
4. Forsling, M. L., Wheeler, M. J., & Williams, A. J. (1999). The effect of melatonin administration on pituitary hormone secretion in man. Clinical endocrinology, 51(5), 637-642.
5. Luthringer, R., Muzet, M., Zisapel, N., & Staner, L. (2009). The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia. International clinical psychopharmacology, 24(5), 239-249.
6. Alstadhaug, K. B., Odeh, F., Salvesen, R., & Bekkelund, S. I. (2010). Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 75(17), 1527-1532.
1. Chase, M. H., Soja, P. J., & Morales, F. R. (1989). Evidence that glycine mediates the postsynaptic potentials that inhibit lumbar motoneurons during the atonia of active sleep. Journal of Neuroscience, 9(3), 743-751.
2. Brooks, P. L., & Peever, J. H. (2011). Impaired GABA and glycine transmission triggers cardinal features of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(19), 7111-7121.
3. Yamadera, W., Inagawa, K., Chiba, S., Bannai, M., Takahashi, M., & Nakayama, K. (2007). Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 5(2), 126-131.
4. Luppi, P. H., Clément, O., Garcia, S. V., Brischoux, F., & Fort, P. (2013). New aspects in the pathophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: the potential role of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glycine. Sleep medicine, 14(8), 714-718.
5. Nitz, D., & Siegel, J. M. (1997). GABA release in the locus coeruleus as a function of sleep/wake state. Neuroscience, 78(3), 795-801.
6. Inagawa, K., Hiraoka, T., Kohda, T., Yamadera, W., & Takahashi, M. (2006). Subjective effects of glycine ingestion before bedtime on sleep quality. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 4(1), 75-77.
7. Bannai, M., & Kawai, N. (2012). New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: glycine improves the quality of sleep. Journal of pharmacological sciences, 118(2), 145-148.
8. Kasai, K., Kobayashi, M., & Shimoda, S. I. (1978). Stimulatory effect of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 27(2), 201-208.
9. Kasai, K., Suzuki, H., Nakamura, T., Shiina, H., & Shimoda, S. I. (1980). Glycine stimulates growth hormone release in man. Acta endocrinologica, 93(3), 283-286.
1. Isidori, A., Lo Monaco, A., & Cappa, M. (1981). A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acids. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 7(7), 475-481.
1. Omori, K., Kagami, Y., Yokoyama, C., Moriyama, T., Matsumoto, N., Masaki, M., … & Kuriki, T. (2012). Promotion of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice after oral administration of ornithine. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 10(1), 38-45.
2. Miyake, M., Kirisako, T., Kokubo, T., Miura, Y., Morishita, K., Okamura, H., & Tsuda, A. (2014). Randomised controlled trial of the effects of L-ornithine on stress markers and sleep quality in healthy workers. Nutrition journal, 13(1), 53.
3. Bucci, L., Hickson Jr, J. F., Pivarnik, J. M., Wolinsky, I., McMahon, J. C., & Turner, S. D. (1990). Ornithine ingestion and growth hormone release in bodybuilders. Nutrition Research, 10(3), 239-245.
4. Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., Zebrowska, A., Chalimoniuk, M., & Langfort, J. (2010). Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(4), 1082-1090.
5. Kokubo, T., Ikeshima, E., Kirisako, T., Miura, Y., Horiuchi, M., & Tsuda, A. (2013). A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the effects of L-ornithine on salivary cortisol and feelings of fatigue of flushers the morning after alcohol consumption. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 7(1), 6.
1. Monti, L. D., Setola, E., Lucotti, P. C. G., Marrocco‐Trischitta, M. M., Comola, M., Galluccio, E., … & Chiesa, R. (2012). Effect of a long‐term oral l‐arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 14(10), 893-900.
2. Lucotti, P., Setola, E., Monti, L. D., Galluccio, E., Costa, S., Sandoli, E. P., … & Piatti, P. (2006). Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(5), E906-E912.
3. Jablecka, A., Bogdanski, P., Balcer, N., Cieslewicz, A., Skoluda, A., & Musialik, K. (2012). The effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on fasting glucose, HbA1c, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 16(3), 342-50.
4. Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Freese, R., Jung, D., Lukacs, Z., Jambrecina, A., … & Böger, R. H. (2008). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L‐citrulline and L‐arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(1), 51-59.
5. Collier, S. R., Casey, D. P., & Kanaley, J. A. (2005). Growth hormone responses to varying doses of oral arginine. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 15(2), 136-139.
6. Isidori, A., Lo Monaco, A., & Cappa, M. (1981). A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acids. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 7(7), 475-481.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
1. Vazquez, J., & Baghdoyan, H. A. (2001). Basal forebrain acetylcholine release during REM sleep is significantly greater than during waking. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 280(2), R598-R601.
2. Kametani, H., & Kawamura, H. (1990). Alterations in acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus during sleep-wakefulness detected by intracerebral dialysis. Life sciences, 47(5), 421-426.
3. Jouvet, M. (1972). The role of monoamines and acetylcholine-containing neurons in the regulation of the sleep-waking cycle. In Neurophysiology and neurochemistry of sleep and wakefulness (pp. 166-307). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
4. Gillin, J. C., Sitaram, N., & Mendelson, W. B. (1982). Acetylcholine, sleep, and depression. Human Neurobiology, 1(3), 211-219.
5. Liang, Y. Q., & Tang, X. C. (2004). Comparative effects of huperzine A, donepezil, and rivastigmine on cortical acetylcholine level and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats. Neuroscience letters, 361(1-3), 56-59.
6. Datta, S., Calvo, J. M., Quattrochi, J. J., & Hobson, J. A. (1991). Long-term enhancement of REM sleep following cholinergic stimulation. Neuroreport, 2(10), 619-622.
1. Andrade, C., Aswath, A., Chaturvedi, S. K., Srinivasa, M., & Raguram, R. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera. Indian journal of psychiatry, 42(3), 295.
2. Cooley, K., Szczurko, O., Perri, D., Mills, E. J., Bernhardt, B., Zhou, Q., & Seely, D. (2009). Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PLoS One, 4(8), e6628.
3. Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J., & Anishetty, S. (2012). A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 34(3), 255.
4. Raut, A. A., Rege, N. N., Tadvi, F. M., Solanki, P. V., Kene, K. R., Shirolkar, S. G., … & Vaidya, A. B. (2012). Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 3(3), 111.
5. Wankhede, S., Langade, D., Joshi, K., Sinha, S. R., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 43.
6. Mahdi, A. A., Shukla, K. K., Ahmad, M. K., Rajender, S., Shankhwar, S. N., Singh, V., & Dalela, D. (2011). Withania somnifera improves semen quality in stress-related male fertility. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.
7. Manjunath, N. K., & Telles, S. (2005). Influence of Yoga & Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 121(5), 683.
1. Datta, S., Calvo, J. M., Quattrochi, J. J., & Hobson, J. A. (1991). Long-term enhancement of REM sleep following cholinergic stimulation. Neuroreport, 2(10), 619-622.
2. Schulz, K. M., Pearson, J. N., Gasparrini, M. E., Brooks, K. F., Drake-Frazier, C., Zajkowski, M. E., … & Stevens, K. E. (2014). Dietary choline supplementation to dams during pregnancy and lactation mitigates the effects of in utero stress exposure on adult anxiety-related behaviors. Behavioural brain research, 268, 104-110.
3. Bjelland, I., Tell, G. S., Vollset, S. E., Konstantinova, S., & Ueland, P. M. (2009). Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 90(4), 1056-1060.
4. Coplan, J. D., Mathew, S. J., Mao, X., Smith, E. L., Hof, P. R., Coplan, P. M., … & Shungu, D. C. (2006). Decreased choline and creatine concentrations in centrum semiovale in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: relationship to IQ and early trauma. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 147(1), 27-39.
5. Jiang, X., Yan, J., West, A. A., Perry, C. A., Malysheva, O. V., Devapatla, S., … & Caudill, M. A. (2012). Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans. The FASEB Journal, 26(8), 3563-3574.
1. Aviv, A., Levy, D., & Belmaker, R. H. (1995). Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 152, 1084-1086.
2. Gelber, D., Levine, J., & Belmaker, R. H. (2001). Effect of inositol on bulimia nervosa and binge eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(3), 345-348.
3. Palatnik, A., Frolov, K., Fux, M., & Benjamin, J. (2001). Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 21(3), 335-339.
4. Fux, M., Levine, J., Aviv, A., & Belmaker, R. H. (1996). Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(9), 1219-1221.
5. Nordio, M., & Proietti, E. (2012). The combined therapy with myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol reduces the risk of metabolic disease in PCOS overweight patients compared to myo-inositol supplementation alone. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 16(5), 575-81.
6. Santamaria, A., Giordano, D., Corrado, F., Pintaudi, B., Interdonato, M. L., Vieste, G. D., … & D’Anna, R. (2012). One-year effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Climacteric, 15(5), 490-495.
1. Wilson, B., Cockburn, J., Baddeley, A., & Hiorns, R. (1989). The development and validation of a test battery for detecting and monitoring everyday memory problems. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11(6), 855-870.
2. Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Buss, C., Engert, V., Tuch, A., Rutenberg, D., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress, 7(2), 119-126.
3. Baumeister, J., Barthel, T., Geiss, K. R., & Weiss, M. (2008). Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(3), 103-110.
4. Monteleone, P., Beinat, L., Tanzillo, C., Maj, M., & Kemali, D. (1990). Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology, 52(3), 243-248.
5. Schreiber, S., Kampf-Sherf, O., Gorfine, M., Kelly, D., Oppenheim, Y., & Lerer, B. (2000). An open trial of plant-sourced derived phosphatidylserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 37(4), 302-307.