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Torch™ Incendiary Fat Burner

$49.99

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SUPER POTENT FAT BURNING THERMOGENIC

TORCH™ is not only explicit in its transparency – you can see everything you are getting on the label – but it is loaded with ingredients that are designed to operate through several mechanisms and mediums to spark metabolism, enhance mood, burn fat, and help keep your appetite under control.* Only one question remains….are you ready to turn up the heat? If so it is time to add TORCH™ incendiary fat burner to your supplement line-up.

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TORCH_Label

All fat burners are not created equal. The difference between one that works ok and one that works great is all in the formula. A great fat burner starts with research validated and time tested ingredients dosed at clinical levels proven to produce results. Furthermore, the combination of individual ingredients found in a great fat burner must not only be effective by themselves, but they must also work synergistically as a whole in order to amplify fat loss. Lastly, and most importantly, a truly great fat burner should address all areas critical to maximizing your fat and weight loss and support a healthy diet and training.

The sad truth is a “great” fat burner like the one described above doesn’t exist…until now. Introducing TORCH™….A revolutionary fat burner formulated to address all areas of fat loss using time tested, proven ingredients and new, novel compounds not found in any other fat burner on the market. These ingredients work individually and synergistically to help incinerate fat, ramp up metabolism, suppress appetite, and use lipids as fuel. What’s more, TORCH™ contains ingredients that help improve mood and focus to help you stay on task when the goal is to achieve your ideal body composition. From top to bottom TORCH™ will help you push the boundaries of what you thought was possible. Take a quick look at TORCH™’s key ingredients on the fully transparent label and see why it is the premier fat burner on the market today.

300mg Caffeine Complex – Massively ramps up metabolism to speed the fat-burning process while also releasing epinephrine to enhance focus and release body fat stores…all without the typical caffeine crash.
200mcg Chromium Picolinate – Helps move blood sugar from the bloodstream into the cells to be used as energy and to turn fats and carbohydrates into energy.
100mg N-Phenyldimethylamine – A compound similar to DMAA that produces many of the same ergogenic effects such as enhancing mood, improving focus, and creating a feeling of euphoria.
50mg Beta-Phenylethylamine – Used for many different purposes, among them cognitive enhancement, mood improvement, weight loss, and as a concentration aid.
50mg TeaCrine™ – Delivers long lasting energy and accelerates metabolism.
10mg 5-HTP – Functions as an appetite suppressant to ease the stresses of dieting, which can easily compound its effects by reducing fat storage due to elevated stress!
2mg CapsiAtra™ Capsaicin– Enhances insulin sensitivity, protecting your hard-working body from storing carbohydrates as body fat and stuffing your muscles full of glycogen.
2mg Rauwolscine – Acts as an alpha (2) adrenergic antagonist and thus aid in fat burning.

(*To view complete supplement facts click on the ingredient profile tab)

TORCH™ is not only explicit in its transparency – you can see everything you are getting on the label – but it is loaded with ingredients that are designed to operate through several mechanisms and mediums to spark metabolism, enhance mood, burn fat, and help keep your appetite under control. Only one question remains….are you ready to turn up the heat? If so it is time to add TORCH™ incendiary fat burner to your supplement line-up.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

 

Vitamin B3 (Niacin):

  • Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
  • Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
  • Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
  • Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
  • Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
  • Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and vLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).


Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):

B6 is a water soluble vitamin that is important to various metabolic reactions that occur in the body. It is also a coenzyme for protein metabolism and nervous and immune system function. Furthermore, it is involved in the synthesis of hormones and red blood cells.

  • B6 helps to protect the heart from cholesterol deposits and helps to prevent kidney stone formation.
  • B6 also helps activate coenzymes that are important in metabolism.


Chromium (Chromium Polynicotinate):

Chromium is a mineral our bodies use in small amounts for normal body functions, such as digesting food.

  • Chromium helps move blood sugar from the bloodstream into the cells to be used as energy and to turn fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy.
  • Chromium also helps regulate fat and cholesterol in the body, and may reduce food craving.
  • A study conducted by Anton et al. (2008) found that subjects supplementing with chromium over an 8 week period reduced hunger, cravings, and lost more weight compared to a placebo group.

 

FAT METABOLIZING THERMOGENIC MATRIX

Caffeine Matrix (Caffeine Anhydrous, DiCaffeine Malate):

This blend of caffeine helps to provide effectively dosed stimulation for your training and not keep you up all night long.

  • It is also formulated to help fight that horrible crash you might experience with stimulated laden pre-workouts.
  • Multiple studies have confirmed can improve muscular endurance and power, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
  • Doherty and Smith performed a meta-analysis of caffeine’s effects on perceived exertion and found a 5.6% decrease in RPE (rating of perceived exhertion) during exercise.  This means exercise may feel easier at higher effort levels when supplementing with caffeine.


N-phenethyldimethylamine (from Eria Jarensis):

Eria extract contains a compound called N-Phenyldimethylamine which is chemically similar to DMAA.

  • This means it produces many of the same ergogenic effects such as enhancing mood, improving focus, and creating a feeling of euphoria.
  • This is due to N-Phenyldimethylamine’s function as a neuromodulator in the central nervous system that boosts dopamine (the feel good neurotransmitter) levels.


Aframomum Melegueta Seed Extract:

Aframomum melegueta is a spice with a similar composition as Ginger.

  • It shows some promise in fat-mass control.
  • It has been shown to have an impact on increasing metabolic rate.
  • A study by Suqita et al. (2013) found that men who supplemented with aframomum melegueta for four weeks were able to activate brown adipose tissue and increase whole-body energy expenditure.


Green Coffee Bean Extract:

Green coffee extract is a supplement derived from green coffee beans. It is a concentrated source of chlorogenic acid, a compound that may be able to reduce blood sugar and have an anti-diabetic effect.

  • Green coffee bean extract may also be a potent weight loss and anti-obesity supplement.
  • Thom (2007) discovered individuals who consumed green coffee extract over a period of 12 week experienced greater weight lose compared to a placebo group.


GBB-ECC:

Gamma-butryobetaine ethyl ester chloride is a precursor for L-Carnitine.

  • GBB-EEC has the ability to increase the bodies production of L-Carnitine and can help improve energy levels and athletic performance.
  • Higher L-Carnatine levels also helps to promote fat loss and immune system support.


Rauwolscine:

Rauwolscine is an ingredient very similar in structure and effect to Yohimbe  but may be more potent.

  • Rauwolscine can act as an Alpha(2)Adrenergic antagonist and thus aid in fat burning.
  • It also shares the same stimulating and mood-elevating effects as yohimbe.


CapsiAtra™ (Dihydrocapsiate):

CapsiAtra™ is a dihydrocapsiate compound naturally found in CH-19 Sweet peppers that holds clinical benefits in weight management, endurance and metabolism.

  • CapsiAtra™ has the ability to increase resting energy expenditure (REE) – allowing the body to burn off more calories than normal, and stimulate thermogenesis – allowing the body to burn calories off of stored fats.
  • It also enhances glycogen sparing, promoting an increase in energy production through the burning off of fat stored within the body instead of carbohydrates.
  • Galgani et al. (2010) discovered subjects who supplemented with Dihydrocapsiate over a one month period were able to increase their resting metabolic rate on a daily basis compared to placebo.

 

EUPHORIC MOOD ENHANCEMENT MATRIX

Beta-Phenylethylamine:

Beta- Phenylethylamine naturally occurs within the nervous systems of humans, where it is thought to act as a type of neuromodulator. It is considered to be a trace amine chemical and natural monamine alkaloid.

  • Within the human brain it causes the release of norepinephrine and dopamine, two very powerful brain chemicals involved in attention and alertness.
  • Beta- Phenylethylamine is used for many different purposes, among them cognitive enhancement, mood improvement, weight loss, and as a concentration aid.
  • Beta- Phenylethylamine may help to speed up the metabolism. This means that it can lead to an increased rate of fat burning.


Theacrine (Teacrine™):

TeaCrine is concentrated nature-identical theacrine that delivers energy shown to last up to 6 hours.

  • Theacrine’s multi-faceted effects come from the synergistic reactions between two neural pathways: dopaminergic and adenosinergic pathways.
  • By affecting these pathways, Theacrine accelerates metabolism, increases energy production, and enables competitive athletes, active individuals and driven professionals to better their physical and mental performance.
  • TeaCrine also helps to maintain inflammation within the normal range, which helps decrease muscle and joint discomfort during and following exercise.


GABA:

GABA is an amino acid, formed from glutamate and is present in high concentrations throughout the central nervous system, acting as an excitatory neurotransmitter.

  • GABA can help lower cortisol levels and manage stress caused by stimulants.
  • GABA originally became popular among bodybuilders when a study revealed acute supplementation resulted in an increase of growth hormone.
  • GABA may also improve exercise recovery and work in synergy with nitric oxide increasing ingredients.
  • Researchers at the University of Florida found subjects who took GABA followed by either resistance training or rest had elevated levels of growth hormone compared to placebo.


Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine:

Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine is a nootropic compound that converts to both choline and cytidine upon ingestion.

  • It helps to increase memory and cognitive function
  • Studies have shown that it can also help increase attention.
  • McGlade et al. (2012) discovered women who supplemented with Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine for 28 days were able to significantly improve attention focus and attention inhibition compared to placebo.

 

APPETITE SUPPRESSION MATRIX

Alpha Lipoic Acid:

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. It is synthesized in the body and can be consumed through eating meats and minimally in some fruits/vegetables.

  • ALA has been shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.
  • ALA has also been shown to be of benefit against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.
  • ALA is also a potent anti-oxidant compound. It works with mitochondria and the body’s natural anti-oxidant defenses.
  • It is also seen as an anti-aging compound since it can reverse some of the oxidant damage related effects of aging.


L-5 Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP):

5-HTP is a direct precursor to serotonin which boosts serotonin levels to help elevate mood and aid in weight loss.

  • 5-HTP can increase endogenous cortisol which releases anabolic hormones (testosterone and insulin) and produces a greater anabolic response during weight training sessions.
  • 5-HTP also may promote appetite supressionand lead to a reduction in weight
  • It also serves an important role in helping brain function, blood cells, gastrointestinal system.
  • Ceci et al. (1989) found 5-HTP in obese women (BMI 30-40) was associated with a reduction of calories by approximately 38% (placebo recorded at 20%) over 5 weeks, resulting in weight loss.


Cassia (Bark):

Cassia is also known as where cinnamon comes from (bark).

  • Cassia can help reduce muscle spasms, gas, and suppress the appetite.
  • Over time, it can reduce fasting blood glucose, and potentially cholesterol levels as well.

Frequently Asked Questions About Torch

Q: What is the best way to take Torch?
A: As a dietary supplement take 1 capsule in the morning or before cardiovascular activity. Do not exceed more than 1 capsule at a time or 2 capsules in a 24 hour period.

Q: Do any fat burners really work?
A: Yes, and work very well, all depending on the ingredients found in the formula. The ingredients found in Torch have been proven by science to increase metabolism, suppress appetite, use lipids (fats) as fuel, and ultimately help you lose fat.

Q: Can I take any other stimulants with Torch?
A: Due to the high amount and effective fat burning stimulants found in Torch, we do not recommend taking it with other stimulants such as caffeine, coffee, etc.

Q: What other Kodiak products do you recommend stacking with Torch?
A: In order to help maintain lean muscle mass during times of dieting or “cutting” we recommend stacking Torch with or 3Whey protein complex and BCAAs.



Vitamin B3 (Niacin):
1. Elam, M. B., Hunninghake, D. B., Davis, K. B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., … & ADMIT Investigators. (2000). Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: a randomized trial. Jama,284(10), 1263-1270.
2. Goldberg, A., Alagona, P., Capuzzi, D. M., Guyton, J., Morgan, J. M., Rodgers, J., … & Samuel, P. (2000). Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. The American journal of cardiology, 85(9), 1100-1105.
3. Guyton, J. R. (2007). Niacin in cardiovascular prevention: mechanisms, efficacy, and safety. Current opinion in lipidology, 18(4), 415-420.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
1. Czaja, J., Lebiedzinska, A., Marszall, M., & Szefer, P. (2011). Evaluation for magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation among Polish elite athletes.Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, 62(4).
2. Manore, M. M. (2000). Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 72(2), 598s-606s.
3. http://vitaminb6benefits.com/vitamin-b6-benefits

Chromium (Chromium Polynicotinate):
1. Parsons A, et al. A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John’s wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2009)
2. Abdollahi M, et al. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. (2013)
3. Martin J, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2006)
4. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr;23(4):313-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.11.001. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. Hua Y, Clark S, Ren J, Sreejayan N. College of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.
5. R. I. Press, J. Geller, and G. W. Evans The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.
6. Harry G. Preuss1,*, Nadeem Talpur1, Vijaya Manohar1, Nagaveni Venkataramiah1 and Richard A. Anderson Chromium and hypertension
7. Stephen D. Anton, Christopher D. Morrison, William T. Cefalu, Corby K. Martin, Sandra Coulon, Paula Geiselman, Hongmei Han, Christy L. White, and Donald A. Williamson. Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety

Caffeine Matrix (Caffeine Anhydrous, DiCaffeine Malate):
1. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., … & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
2. Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
3. Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
4. McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
5. Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
6. Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
7. Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied physiology, 85(2), 709-715.

N-Phenyldimethylamine:
1. Zhang, Y., Woods, R. M., Breitbach, Z. S., & Armstrong, D. W. (2012). 1, 3‐Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?. Drug testing and analysis, 4(12), 986-990.
2. Li, J. S., Chen, M., & Li, Z. C. (2012). Identification and quantification of dimethylamylamine in geranium by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry insights, 7, 47.
3. Hedman, K., Leander, K., & Luning, B. (1969). STUDIES ON ORCHIDACEAE ALKALOIDS. 15. PHENETHYLAMINES FROM ERIA-JARENSIS AMES. ACTA CHEMICA SCANDINAVICA, 23(9), 3261.

Aframomum melegueta:
1. Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Uchiwa, H., … & Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(04), 733-738.
2. Iwami, M., Mahmoud, F. A., Shiina, T., Hirayama, H., Shima, T., Sugita, J., & Shimizu, Y. (2011). Extract of grains of paradise and its active principle 6-paradol trigger thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in rats. Autonomic Neuroscience, 161(1), 63-67.

Green Coffee Bean Extract:
1. Taylor, L. W., Wilborn, C. D., Harvey, T., Wismann, J., & Willoughby, D. S. (2007). Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 1-9.
2. Shimoda, H., Seki, E., & Aitani, M. (2006). Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 6(1), 1.
3. Burke, A., Catalano, P., Lal, S. K., Maniam, P., & Tojino, C. Green Coffee Bean Extract.
4. Watanabe, T., Arai, Y., Mitsui, Y., Kusaura, T., Okawa, W., Kajihara, Y., & Saito, I. (2006). The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clinical and experimental hypertension, 28(5), 439-449.
5. Onakpoya, I., Terry, R., & Ernst, E. (2010). The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Gastroenterology research and practice, 2011.

Rauwolscine:
1. Perry, B. D., & U’Prichard, D. C. (1981). [3 H] Rauwolscine (α-yohimbine): A specific antagonist radioligand for brain α 2-adrenergic receptors. European journal of pharmacology, 76(4), 461-464.
2. Rockhold, R. W., & Gross, F. (1981). Yohimbine diastereoisomers: Cardiovascular effects after central and peripheral application in the rat.Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s archives of pharmacology, 315(3), 227-231.
3. Arthur, J. M., Casańas, S. J., & Raymond, J. R. (1993). Partial agonist properties of rauwolscine and yohimbine for the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by recombinant human 5-HT 1A receptors. Biochemical pharmacology,45(11), 2337-2341.
4. Wainscott, D. B., Sasso, D. A., Kursar, J. D., Baez, M., Lucaites, V. L., & Nelson, D. L. (1997). [3H] Rauwolscine: an antagonist radioligand for the cloned human 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptor. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s archives of pharmacology, 357(1), 17-24.

CapsiAtra™ (Dihydrocapsiate):
1. Galgani, J. E., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 92(5), 1089-1093.
2. Lee, T. A., Li, Z., Zerlin, A., & Heber, D. (2010). Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial. Nutrition & metabolism, 7(1), 1.
3. Galgani, J. E., Ryan, D. H., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of capsinoids on energy metabolism in human subjects. British journal of nutrition, 103(01), 38-42.
4. Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., & Takahashi, M. (2007). Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 71(2), 380-389.

Beta-Phenylethylamine:
1. Sabelli HC, Borison RL, Diamond BI, Havdala HS, Narasimhachari N. Phenylethylamine and brain function. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978
2. Calvert R, Vohra S, Ferguson M, Wiesenfeld P. A beating heart cell model to predict cardiotoxicity: effects of the dietary supplement ingredients higenamine, phenylethylamine, ephedrine and caffeine. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015
3. Greenshaw AJ. Functional interactions of 2-phenylethylamine and of tryptamine with brain catecholamines: implications for psychotherapeutic drug action. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1989
4. Nieforth KA. Psychotomimetic phenethylamines. J Pharm Sci. 1971
5. Heuson E, Storgaard M, Huynh TH, Charmantray F, Gefflaut T, Bunch L. Profiling substrate specificity of two series of phenethylamine analogs at monoamine oxidase A and B. Org Biomol Chem. 2014
6. Boulton AA, Juorio AV, Paterson IA. Phenylethylamine in the CNS: effects of monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs, deuterium substitution and lesions and its role in the neuromodulation of catecholaminergic neurotransmission. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1990

Theacrine:
1. Habowski, S. M., Sandrock, J. E., Kedia, A. W., & Ziegenfuss, T. N. (2014). The effects of TeacrineTM, a nature-identical purine alkaloid, on subjective measures of cognitive function, psychometric and hemodynamic indices in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blinded crossover pilot trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 1-2.
2. Taylor, L., Mumford, P., Roberts, M., Hayward, S., Mullins, J., Urbina, S., & Wilborn, C. (2016). Safety of TeaCrine®, a non-habituating, naturally-occurring purine alkaloid over eight weeks of continuous use. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 1-14.
3. Kuhman, D. J., Joyner, K. J., & Bloomer, R. J. (2015). Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.Nutrients, 7(11), 9618-9632.

GABA:
1. Cavagnini, F., Invitti, C., Pinto, M., Maraschini, C., Di Landro, A., Dubini, A., & Marelli, A. (1980). Effect of acute and repeated administration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Acta endocrinologica, 93(2), 149-154.
2. Cavagnini, F., Invitti, C., Di Landro, A., Tenconi, L., Maraschini, C., & Girotti, G. (1977). Effects of a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, baclofen, on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 45(3), 579-584.
3. Cavagnini, F., Pinto, M., Dubini, A., Invitti, C., Cappelletti, G., & Polli, E. E. (1982). Effects of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol on endocrine pancreatic function in man. Metabolism, 31(1), 73-77.
4. Inoue, K., Shirai, T., Ochiai, H., Kasao, M., Hayakawa, K., Kimura, M., & Sansawa, H. (2003). Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(3), 490-495.
5. Powers, M. E., Yarrow, J. F., McCoy, S. C., & Borst, S. E. (2008). Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(1), 104.

Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine:
1. McGlade, E., Locatelli, A., Hardy, J., Kamiya, T., Morita, M., Morishita, K., … & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2012). Improved attentional performance following citicoline administration in healthy adult women. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3(6), 769.
2. McGlade, E., Agoston, A. M., DiMuzio, J., Kizaki, M., Nakazaki, E., Kamiya, T., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2015). The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males. Journal of attention disorders, 1087054715593633.
3. Grieb, P. (2015). Citicoline: A Food That May Improve Memory. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, 2, 67-72.
4. Spiers, P. A., Myers, D., Hochanadel, G. S., Lieberman, H. R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1996). Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging. Archives of neurology, 53(5), 441-448.

Alpha Lipoic Acid:
1. McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., … & McEneny, J. (2011). Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 1.
2. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
3. Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., & Khan, B. V. (2005). Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome results of the irbesartan and lipoic acid in endothelial dysfunction (island) study. Circulation, 111(3), 343-348.
4. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., … & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3 suppl), 45-50.

5-HTP:
1. Rondanelli M, et al. Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration. Eat Weight Disord. (2012)
2. Birdsall TC. 5-Hydroxytryptophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor. Altern Med Rev. (1998)
3. Ceci F, et al. The effects of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm. (1989)
4. Effects of oral 5-hydroxy-tryptophan on energy intake and macronutrient selection in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1998)
5. Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Brain serotonin, carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Obes Res. (1995)
6. Schruers K, et al. Acute L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration inhibits carbon dioxide-induced panic in panic disorder patients. Psychiatry Res. (2002)
7. Aliño JJ, Gutierrez JL, Iglesias ML. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and a MAOI (nialamide) in the treatment of depressions. A double-blind controlled study. Int Pharmacopsychiatry. (1976)
8. Kline N, Sacks W. Treatment of depression with an mao inhibitor followed by 5-HTP–an unfinished research project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. (1980)

Cassia:
1. Solomon et al. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Nov;9(6):895-901.
2. Solomon et al. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 Apr;105(6):969-76. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-0986-9. Epub 2009 Jan 22.
3. Vafa et al. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med. 2012 Aug;3(8):531-6.
4. Lee et al. Immunomodulatory effect of water extract of cinnamon on anti-CD3-induced cytokine responses and p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and STAT4 activation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011 Dec;33(4):714-22. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.564185. Epub 2011 Mar 29. PMID:22053946
5. Kumar et al. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential ofCinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 Aug 10;11:95. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-95. PMID:22882757

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