Ketogen™ Stimulant Free Fat Metabolizer
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Kodiak Ketogen is the most innovative, non-stimulant fat metabolizer on the market today. By using three scientifically developed complexes loaded with research validated ingredients, Ketogen helps target multiple aspects of weight loss including fat utilization, improved metabolism, insulin regulation, appetite control, and carbohydrate metabolism.* Take a look at Ketogen’s fully transparent label and you will find full, clinical doses of:
- 7Keto® DHEA – 7-Keto® has been shown in published clinical research to help maintain metabolic rate and increase weight loss 2.9x more than diet and exercise alone.*
- L-Carnitine Tartrate – Essential for transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.*
- CapsiAtra™ – Enhances insulin sensitivity, protecting your hard-working body from storing carbohydrates as body fat and stuffing your muscles full of glycogen.*
- Raspberry Ketones – Increase lipolysis by making the cells more sensitive to the effects of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine.*
- Garcinia Cambogia – May prevent de novo lipogenesis which is the process that turns glucose (carbs) into lipids (fat).*
- Alpha Lipoic Acid – Shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.*
(*To view complete supplement facts click on the ingredient profile tab below)
Kodiak Ketogen is the most innovative, non-stimulant fat metabolizer on the market today. By using three scientifically developed complexes loaded with research validated ingredients, Ketogen helps target multiple aspects of weight loss including fat utilization, improved metabolism, insulin regulation, appetite control, and carbohydrate metabolism. Take a look at Ketogen’s fully transparent label and you will find full, clinical doses of:
7Keto® DHEA – 7-Keto® has been shown in published clinical research to help maintain metabolic rate and increase weight loss 2.9x more than diet and exercise alone.
L-Carnitine Tartrate – Essential for transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.
CapsiAtra™ – Enhances insulin sensitivity, protecting your hard-working body from storing carbohydrates as body fat and stuffing your muscles full of glycogen.
Raspberry Ketones – Increase lipolysis by making the cells more sensitive to the effects of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine.
Garcinia Cambogia – May prevent de novo lipogenesis which is the process that turns glucose (carbs) into lipids (fat).
Alpha Lipoic Acid – Shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.
We all know proper nutrition and a sound exercise program are key to improving body composition and obliterating fat. Unfortunately, there is no magic pill that can do it for you without putting in the hard work. However, even the best programs need a “kick” when weight loss comes to a plateau or stops completely. The ground breaking blend of ingredients found in Ketogen perfectly complements a well-designed weight loss plan and can enhance your body’s ability to become lean.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
- Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
- Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
- Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
- Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
- Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and vLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Chromium is a mineral our bodies use in small amounts for normal body functions, such as digesting food.
- Chromium helps move blood sugar from the bloodstream into the cells to be used as energy and to turn fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy.
- Chromium also helps regulate fat and cholesterol in the body, and may reduce food craving.
- A study conducted by Anton et al. (2008) found that subjects supplementing with chromium over an 8 week period reduced hunger, cravings, and lost more weight compared to a placebo group.
Ketogen Fat Disposal Complex
L-Carnitine is an amino acid that is derived from lysine and methionine and is essential for transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.
- L-Carnitine has also been shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, muscular fatigue, and reduce soreness.
- A study conducted by Volek et al. (2002) found that supplementation with L-Carnitine daily for one week in healthy resistance trained men was able to reduce markers of muscle damage after weight lifting. It was also discovered that biomarkers of oxidative damage reduced to baseline sooner than placebo.
- Ho et al. (2010) discovered that middle aged males and females who supplemented with L-Carnitine over a 24-day period experienced less muscle damage and soreness following exercise and had less oxidative markers in serum after exercise.
7-Keto DHEA is a metabolite of serum DHEA that is nonhormonal.
- It appears to be a fat loss agent as it may increase the metabolic rate.
- Studies using 7-keto supplementation tend to note an increased metabolic rate later on during a caloric restriction period.
- A study by Zenk et al. (2007) found 7-Keto taken daily for 7 days during caloric restriction was associated with an increase in metabolic rate (minimal, 1.4% relative to baseline) when placebo experienced a decrease relative to baseline (3.9%).
Green Coffee Bean:
Green coffee extract is a supplement derived from green coffee beans. It is a concentrated source of chlorogenic acid, a compound that may be able to reduce blood sugar and have an anti-diabetic effect.
- Green coffee bean extract may also be a potent weight loss and anti-obesity supplement.
- Thom (2007) discovered individuals who consumed green coffee extract over a period of 12 week experienced greater weight loss compared to a placebo group.
Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry that have been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes.
- Raspberry ketones may increase lipolysis by making the cells more sensitive to the effects of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine.
- Research suggests its potential to influence adiponectin, a hormone that modulates fatty acid catabolism and is inversely correlated with body fat levels
Has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels as well as raising insulin and hemoglobin levels to normal at the same time.
- It also shows a cognitive benefit by helping to offer protection against free radicals damage to the brain… which can lead to a greater focus.
- Pterostilbene also supports anti-oxidant and heart healthy benefits.
Kelp contains a carotenoid called fucoxanthin that is stored in fat cells for a prolonged period of time and can induce fat loss while inhibiting fat cell differentiation and proliferation.
- It also possesses other health benefits, such as correcting abnormalities in glucose metabolism in muscle tissue which can help diabetics andmight reduce cholesterol levels and triglycerides by currently unverified mechanisms.
- Reductions in blood pressure and reductions in both liver fat stores and liver enzyme values have also been noted with fucoxanthin supplementation in humans.
- A 16 weeks human study found subjects who supplemented with Kelp reduced body weight, decreased waist circumference, and increased metabolic rate compared to placebo.
CapsiAtra™ is a dihydrocapsiate compound naturally found in CH-19 Sweet peppers that holds clinical benefits in weight management, endurance and metabolism.
- CapsiAtra™ has the ability to increase resting energy expenditure (REE) – allowing the body to burn off more calories than normal, and stimulate thermogenesis – allowing the body to burn calories off of stored fats.
- It also enhances glycogen sparing, promoting an increase in energy production through the burning off of fat stored within the body instead of carbohydrates.
- Galgani et al. (2010) discovered subjects who supplemented with Dihydrocapsiate over a one month period were able to increase their resting metabolic rate on a daily basis compared to placebo.
Ketogen Carbohydrate Disposal Complex
Garcinia Cambogia Fruit:
Garcinia Cambogia more commonly has been used as a cooking ingredient but has recently surfaced at a potential weight loss ingredient due to its appetite suppression and de novo lipogenesis effects.
- May prevent de novo lipogenesis which is the process that turns glucose (carbs) into lipids (fat).
- May assist in appetite suppression and assist in weight control via reduced food intake
- It may also reuptake serotonin which could enhance mood.
Alpha Lipoic Acid:
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. It is synthesized in the body and can be consumed through eating meats and minimally in some fruits/vegetables.
- ALA has been shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.
- ALA has also been shown to be of benefit against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.
- ALA is also a potent anti-oxidant compound. It works with mitochondria and the body’s natural anti-oxidant defenses.
- It is also seen as an anti-aging compound since it can reverse some of the oxidant damage related effects of aging.
Ketogen Bloat Reduction Matrix
Ginger is a spice that can reduce nausea and ease digestion quite effectively.
- It is commonly used to treat a myriad of stomach problems. It helps to reduce everything from heartburn to gas and diarrhea.
- Ginger is believed to be a mild appetite suppressant. Anecdotal evidence supports people feeling “more full” when taking a ginger supplement.
- A meta-analysis conducted by Ernst et al. (2000) found ginger was able to reduce nausea induced by seasickness, morning sickness, and chemotherapy induced sickeness.
Dandelion Root Extract:
Taraxacum officinale, also known as dandelion, is a vegetable that has a diuretic (water loss) effect when ingested.
- It is also a source of potassium and thereby helps replace diuresis-induced losses.
- Dandelion may help ease digestion by increasing the rate at which food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine.
- A study conducted by Clare et al. (2009) found dandelion three times a day in otherwise healthy subjects reported an increase in urination frequency relative to the same subjects the day before and after supplementation.
Q: What is the best way to take Ketogen?
A: As a dietary supplement take 1 serving (3 capsules) with a meal
Q: How does Ketogen assist with fat disposal?
A: Ketogen assists with fat disposal by using ingredients that promote fat being used as a “fuel” source and increasing lipolysis by making the cells more sensitive to the effects of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine.
Q: How does Ketogen assist with carbohydrate metabolism?
A: Certain ingredients in Ketogen, such as CapsiAtra and Garcinia Cambogia, enhance insulin sensitivity and prevent de novo lipogenesis; both of which help prevent the storing of carbohydrates as body fat.
Q: What other Kodiak products do you recommend stacking with Ketogen?
A: In order to help maintain lean muscle mass during times of dieting or “cutting” we recommend stacking Ketogen with or 3Whey protein complex and Ammo. Also because Ketogen contains no stimulants it can be taken in conjunction with our pre-workout, Attack.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin):
1. Elam, M. B., Hunninghake, D. B., Davis, K. B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., … & ADMIT Investigators. (2000). Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: a randomized trial. Jama,284(10), 1263-1270.
2. Goldberg, A., Alagona, P., Capuzzi, D. M., Guyton, J., Morgan, J. M., Rodgers, J., … & Samuel, P. (2000). Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. The American journal of cardiology, 85(9), 1100-1105.
3. Guyton, J. R. (2007). Niacin in cardiovascular prevention: mechanisms, efficacy, and safety. Current opinion in lipidology, 18(4), 415-420.
Chromium (Chromium Polynicotinate):
1. Parsons A, et al. A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John’s wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2009)
2. Abdollahi M, et al. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. (2013)
3. Martin J, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2006)
4. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr;23(4):313-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.11.001. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. Hua Y, Clark S, Ren J, Sreejayan N. College of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.
5. R. I. Press, J. Geller, and G. W. Evans The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.
6. Harry G. Preuss1,*, Nadeem Talpur1, Vijaya Manohar1, Nagaveni Venkataramiah1 and Richard A. Anderson Chromium and hypertension
7. Stephen D. Anton, Christopher D. Morrison, William T. Cefalu, Corby K. Martin, Sandra Coulon, Paula Geiselman, Hongmei Han, Christy L. White, and Donald A. Williamson. Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety
1. Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., French, D. N., Rubin, M. R., Sharman, M. J., Gómez, A. L., … & Hakkinen, K. (2003). The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(3), 455-462.
2. Spiering, B. A., Kraemer, W. J., Vingren, J. L., Hatfield, D. L., Fragala, M. S., Ho, J. Y., … & Volek, J. S. (2007). Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(1), 259-264.
3. Ho, J. Y., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Fragala, M. S., Thomas, G. A., Dunn-Lewis, C., … & Maresh, C. M. (2010). l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism, 59(8), 1190-1199.
4. Broad, E. M., Maughan, R. J., & Galloway, S. D. (2008). Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism during exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in humans.
5. Dehghani, M., Shakerian, S., Nejad, S. H., & Gharib-Naseri, M. K. (2015). Effects of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Acute Consumption on Lipid Metabolism, Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and distance run Following Aerobic Exhaustive Exercise on Treadmill in Elite Athletes wrestling. The AYER, 2, 189-195.
1. Zenk, J. L., Frestedt, J. L., & Kuskowski, M. A. (2007). HUM5007, a novel combination of thermogenic compounds, and 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone: each increases the resting metabolic rate of overweight adults. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 18(9), 629-634.
2. Kaiman, D. S., Colker, C. M., Swain, M. A., Torina, G. C., & Shi, Q. (2000). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. Current therapeutic research, 61(7), 435-442.
3. Zenk, J. L., Helmer, T. R., Kassen, L. J., & Kuskowski, M. A. (2002). The effect of 7-Keto Naturalean™ on weight loss: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Current therapeutic research, 63(4), 263-272.
Green Coffee Bean Extract:
1. Taylor, L. W., Wilborn, C. D., Harvey, T., Wismann, J., & Willoughby, D. S. (2007). Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 1-9.
2. Shimoda, H., Seki, E., & Aitani, M. (2006). Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 6(1), 1.
3. Burke, A., Catalano, P., Lal, S. K., Maniam, P., & Tojino, C. Green Coffee Bean Extract.
4. Watanabe, T., Arai, Y., Mitsui, Y., Kusaura, T., Okawa, W., Kajihara, Y., & Saito, I. (2006). The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clinical and experimental hypertension, 28(5), 439-449.
5. Onakpoya, I., Terry, R., & Ernst, E. (2010). The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Gastroenterology research and practice, 2011.
1. Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., & Ferrando, A. A. (2013). Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 22.
2. Morimoto, Chie; Satoh, Yurie; Hara, Mariko; Inoue, Shintaro; Tsujita, Takahiro; Okuda, Hiromichi (2005). “Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone”. Life Sciences 77 (2): 194–204.
3. Park, Kyoung (2010). “Raspberry Ketone Increases Both Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes”. Planta Medica 76 (15): 1654–8. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249860. PMID 20425690.
1. Dellinger, R. W. (2014, August). Clinical evaluation of PURENERGY (TM), a novel co-crystal ingredient comprised of pterostilbene and caffeine, in healthy adults. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (Vol. 248). 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA: AMER CHEMICAL SOC.
2. Seeram, N. P. (2011). Emerging research supporting the positive effects of berries on human health and disease prevention. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60
3. Rimando, A. M., Cuendet, M., Desmarchelier, C., Mehta, R. G., Pezzuto, J. M., & Duke, S. O. (2002). Cancer chemopreventive and antioxidant activities of pterostilbene, a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 50(12), 3453-3457.
4. Sekhon, B. S. (2012). Nutraceutical cocrystals: an overview. RGUHS J. Pharm. Sci., 2, 16-25.
1. Abidov, M., Ramazanov, Z., Seifulla, R., & Grachev, S. (2010). The effects of Xanthigen™ in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 12(1), 72-81.
1. Galgani, J. E., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 92(5), 1089-1093.
2. Lee, T. A., Li, Z., Zerlin, A., & Heber, D. (2010). Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial. Nutrition & metabolism, 7(1), 1.
3. Galgani, J. E., Ryan, D. H., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of capsinoids on energy metabolism in human subjects. British journal of nutrition, 103(01), 38-42.
4. Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., & Takahashi, M. (2007). Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 71(2), 380-389.
1. Mattes, Richard D., and Leslie Bormann. “Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables.” Physiology & behavior 71.1 (2000): 87-94.
2. Ohia, S. E., Opere, C. A., LeDay, A. M., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., & Stohs, S. J. (2002). Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry,238(1-2), 89-103.
3. Shara, M., Ohia, S. E., Yasmin, T., Zardetto-Smith, A., Kincaid, A., Bagchi, M., … & Stohs, S. J. (2003). Dose-and time-dependent effects of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 254(1-2), 339-346.
4. Rao, R. N., & Sakariah, K. K. (1988). Lipid-lowering and antiobesity effect of (−) hydroxycitric acid. Nutrition research, 8(2), 209-212.
5. Thom, E. (2000). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new weight-reducing agent of natural origin. Journal of international medical research, 28(5), 229-233.
6. Heymsfield, S. B., Allison, D. B., Vasselli, J. R., Pietrobelli, A., Greenfield, D., & Nunez, C. (1998). Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(18), 1596-1600.
Alpha Lipoic Acid:
1. McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., … & McEneny, J. (2011). Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 1.
2. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
3. Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., & Khan, B. V. (2005). Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome results of the irbesartan and lipoic acid in endothelial dysfunction (island) study. Circulation, 111(3), 343-348.
4. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., … & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3 suppl), 45-50.
1. Ernst, E., & Pittler, M. H. (2000). Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. British journal of anaesthesia, 84(3), 367-371.
2. Chaiyakunapruk, N., Kitikannakorn, N., Nathisuwan, S., Leeprakobboon, K., & Leelasettagool, C. (2006). The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 194(1), 95-99.
3. Smith, C., Crowther, C., Willson, K., Hotham, N., & McMillian, V. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103(4), 639-645.
4. Black, C. D., Herring, M. P., Hurley, D. J., & O’Connor, P. J. (2010). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. The Journal of Pain, 11(9), 894-903.
5. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., … & Lee, C. M. (2008). Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 20(5), 436-440.
6. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., … & Lee, C. M. (2008). Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 20(5), 436-440.
1. Lee et al. 2012; Effects of Taraxacum officinale on fatigue and immunological parameters in mice.
2. Jeon et al. 2008; Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale.
3. Choi et al. 2010; Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits.
4. Turski et al. 2011; Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.
5. Domitrovic et al. 2010; Antifibrotic activity of Taraxacum officinale root in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.
6. Chaterjee et al 2011; The efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells.
7. Ovadje et al 2012; Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cells.